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Benedek, Dezso. The Songs of the Ancestors: A Comparative Study of Bashiic Folklore. Taiwan: Southern Materials Center Inc., 1991.

Breitbart, Eric. A World on Display 1904: Photographs from the St. Louis World's Fair. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico, 1997.

Cichon, Melchor. Ham-at Madeuom Ro Gabii? (Bakit Madilim ang Gabi?), A Collection of Aklanon Poems with Filipino Translation. Aklan: Makar Enterprises, 1999.

Clevenger, Martha R. (Ed.). "Indescribably Grand": Diaries and Letters from the 1904 World's Fair. St. Louis: Missouri Historical Society Press, 1996.

"Indescribably Grand" re-evaluates the way we remember the World's Fair, offering the reader four immediate responses to the many attractions the fair had to offer. Culled from the archives of the Missouri Historical Society, these previously unpublished memoirs, diaries, sketches, and letters document the fair through the eyes of fairgoers.

Cole, Mabel C. Philippine Folk Tales. Tennessee: University Press of the Pacific, 2000.

Enrique, Virgilio. Pagbabangong Dangal: Indigenous Psychology and Cultural Empowerment. PUGAD LAWIN Press 1994

Eugenio, Damiana L. The Myths: Philippine Folk Literature (Philippine Folk Literature Series, Vol. II). Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 1994.

The book focuses on myths, simply defined as sacred narratives explaining how the world and man came to be in their present form. An "Inroduction" distinguishes myth from legend, with which it is usually confused, and offers a system of classification of myths, which follows the arrangement of mythological motifs in Stith Thompson's Motif-Index of Folk Literature. The myths in this collection are arranged according to the eight categories in the system of classification mentioned above: 1) the Gods: their Activities and Relationships; 2) Cosmology and Cosmonogy; 3) Topographical Features of the Earth (water and land features); 4) World Calamities (The Great Flood); 5) Establishment of the Natural Order; 6) Creation and Ordering of Human Life; 7) Origin of Animal Life and Characteristics; and 8) Origin of Plant Life and Characteristics. Within each category, the myths are arranged according to region-- Luzon, Visayas, Mindanao. Exception was made in the myths on the origin of animals and plants, which are arranged alphabetically. As with the other volumes in the series, the selections are given in English translation, in order to make them accessible to an international readership. As in the other volumes, also, this collection is intended to be national in scope. Care was therefore taken to ensure that it contains as wide a representation as possible of the different types and subtypes of the myths and that it represents as many Philippine ethnolinguistic groups as possible.

Hornedo, Florentino H. Laji: anu maddaw ka mu lipus: an Ivatan folk lyric tradition. Manila: University of Santo Tomas Publishing House, 1997.

Howard, David. The Last Filipino Head Hunters. San Francisco: Last Gasp, 2001.

This heavily illustrated work is the result of a dozen visits by the author to the peoples of the Grand Cordillera of northern Luzon in the Philippines. A talented and sensitive photographer, Howard has captured the face of a rapidly vanishing culture by focusing his lens primarily on the elderly members of the villages he visited. Their densely tattooed bodies and deeply lined countenances speak eloquently where dry paragraphs of history and ethnology can fail. His images are accompanied by a general survey of the region and fascinating accounts of the individuals he met and their own expressions of their personal histories. Images of objects from the region and historical photographs by Dean Worcester and Eduardo Masferre complete this personal odyssey.

Kaliwat Theatre Collective. Arakan: Where Rivers Speak of the Manobo's Living Dreams. Copyright 1996 Kaliwat Theatre Collective, Inc., Tribal Filipino Program for Community Development, Inc. (TFPCDI), Manobo Lumadnong Panaghiusa, Inc. (MALUPA)

An Ethnographic Account of the Manobo Tinananon in Arakan Valley, North Cotabato. Written by Davao-based Kaliwat Theatre Collective as narrated by the Manobo-Tinananon during a three-year Cultural Action Program that led to negotiations for and approval of most of the Ancestral Domain Claims of the Manobo Tinananon.

Krasno, Rena. Kneeling Carabao & Dancing Giants: Celebrating Filipino Festivals. Berkeley: Pacific View Press, 1997.

In this engaging account, the sounds, sights, and flavors of six Filipino festivals show how the modern Philippine nation developed. Folk tales, recipes, songs, vivid illustrations, and lots more bring the celebrations and celebrants to life. For kids 9 to 13, but enjoyable for all ages. Illustrated by Ileana C. Lee.

Lopez, Violeta B. The Mangyans of Mindoro: An Ethnohistory. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 1976.

Masferré, Eduardo. A Tribute to the Philippine Cordillera. Makati City: Brier Projects Inc., 1999.

Excerpt: To the people of the Cordillera, the whole world was a temple and everything in it was sacred. One did not become religious: one was born religious. Each culture group considered itself directly descendent from one or more deities, and believed that they would rejoin their ancestors after death. Living people were expected to look after the desires of departed relatives, and the spirits of the deceased were dependent upon to assist and intercede for their living kin when properly asked to do so.Every aspect of life was under the sway of a large body of gods, demigods, and spirits associated with places, objects, plants, animals, and deceased ancestors. In the 1920s, RF Barton, an American who had lived in Ifugao, estimated the Ifugao pantheon to have about 1500 beings. Everything of any significance in life was sanctified with prayers and formal rituals. All problems were believed due to deficiencies in handling the spirits. Harvests would be plentiful, marriages fruitful, journeys rewarding, illnesses cured, new houses safe only if the spirits were properly propitiated, their favor and assistance gained. The favor of the spirits was invoked through rituals, many involving costly animal sacrifices. The spirits' responses were ascertained by reading the omens indicated in the color and position of the entrails of sacrificed animals and by observing other natural phenomena such as the appearance of a bird or a snake crossing one's path. An unfavorable meant delaying or canceling the planned activity, and performing more rituals in hopes of eliciting a favorable prospect. Activities that might bring the spirits' ill will were taboo. Taboos were enforced through punishments such as fines for minor transgressions, or even death for major offenses, such as when breaking the taboo would result in crop failure.

In the 1930s Eduardo Masferré photographed the culture of the Cordillera people. By mail order, Masferré-born in the town of Sagada in Mountain Province on April 18, 1909-was able to assemble a camera. From then on, he faithfully photographed portraits of people in his town. He was able to publish two books of photographs-People of the Philippine Cordillera 1934-1956 and A Tribute to the Philippine Cordillera. (Gil Nartea, "Photography as a Tool")

Masferré, Eduardo. People of the Philippine Cordillera: photographs, 1934-1956. Manila: Devcon I.P. Inc., 1988.

Mercado, Leonardo N. The Filipino Mind (Philippine Philosophical Studies. Washington D.C.: Council for Research in Values & Philosophy, 1994.

Postma, Antoon. Treasure of a Minority: The Ambahan: a poetic expression of the Mangyans of Southern Mindoro, Philippines. Manila: Arnoldus Press, 1972.


Afable, Patricia O. "The Peoples Of Eduardo Masferre's Photographs". Discovery XXV, Number 2 (1995).

Conklin, Harold C. "Masferre's World: Two Maps". Discovery XXV, Number 2 (1995).

Hagedorn, Jessica. "Ghost Town". Time Asia, August 11, 2003.

Memory of the World Register. Paris: UNESCO, 1999.

Santiago, Lilia Q. Early Philippine Literature. Manila: NCCA, 2002.

Taylor, Paul Michael. "Eduardo Masferre, Photographer Of Highland Luzon". Discovery XXV, Number 2 (1995).

Tiu, Macario D. The Ethnokinship Theory of Literature. Davao City: Mindanews, 2003.

Upchurch, Michael. "'Dream Jungle': Cave Men and Napalm". The New York Times, October 5, 2003.


Eileen R. Tabios. "Meditations on Ilokano Abstractions", January 2001

Rickoshay. “Red, Blue, Red, Blue”, June 2001

Margarita F. Villaluz. “Princess of the Mountain”, September 2001

Elbina Batala. “Heart”, December 2001

Elbina Batala. “There is no Silence” December 2001

Jerry Grandea. “The Rice Terraces”, January 2003

Honorable Wm. Dinwiddie, Governor of the Province of Lepanto. "Scenic Splendors of Northern Luzon: The Future Home of the White Man in the Philippines", April 2003

Eileen R. Tabios. "Santiago Bose: Behind the Emptied Page", April 2003

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